Archive for Genocide
Image: Satiric poster by an unknown author of the planned opera to be produce in a joint cooperation between La Fenice theatre and Emir Kusturica, under the support of Milorad Dodik and Republika Srpska.
Association Cuprija, the “Stop genocide denial” movement and several other non-governmental organizations have started a campaign against the decision of La Fenice theatre to jointly produce an opera entitled “The Bridge over the River Drina” based on the novel by Ivo Andric.
The email address of La Fenice director is: firstname.lastname@example.org
The protest letter is below:
Dear Mr. Cristiano Chiarot,
I am writing to you to express my deep regret that an institution like La Fenice has decided to work with Emir Kusturica and Milorad Dodik on staging „The Bridge over the River Drina“ opera in “Andricgrad”. Taking into consideration Dodik’s and Kusturica’s genocide denial and the blatant discrimination on non-Serbs in Republika Srpska, and the fact that “Andricgrad” has been built on the land forcefully taken from a Bosniak family from Visegrad, I strongly object to La Fenice staging this work in in “Andricgrad”, as it has been announced by Kusturica.
It is highly problematic that with the announced joint project with Kusturica, La Fenice would be directly supporting continued repression of Bosniaks in Visegrad.
I remind you that Visegrad used to be a town with 65% Bosniak population. After the campaign of ethnic cleansing by the Bosnian Serb and Serbian forces, this population has been reduced to 400 Bosniaks, mostly elderly.
The vast majority of them were expelled from Visegrad by Yugoslav Peoples’ Army and Republika Srpska Army, 3,000 were murdered, many Bosniak women and girls raped, women and children burnt alive in houses. These crimes have been well documented by the International War Crimes Tribunal in the Hague.
Currently 600 Bosniaks are registered as missing in Visegrad municipality, buried in mass graves known to the municipal authorities who are refusing to reveal their whereabouts.
Not only is there no attempt by Visegrad and Republika Srpska authorities to acknowledge the crimes and compensate the victims’ families, but they have recently issued an order to remove a monument built for Visegrad’s genocide victims at Straziste cemetery. As you can see, while La Fenice is planning operas with the Dodik’s blessing, Bosniaks in Visegrad are denied the basic right to commemorate their victims.
Furthermore, “Andricgrad” has been built on the land which belongs to Hadžić family from Visegrad, who had it confiscated illegally from them by the municipality as part of the ethnic cleansing of non-Serbs. Hadžić family members, who today live in the UK, Switzerland, Austrija, Australija, New Zealand and Sarajevo, will claim their property back in an international lawsuit and initiate legal action against Republika Srpska authorities and Kusturica. It is difficult to believe that such a renown institution of culture like La Fenice would allow itself to be an accomplice in an illegal enterprise that “Andricgrad” clearly is.
While I have no objection to the promotion of culture La Fenice champions, I strongly disagree Visegrad is a place where such events should take place until it deals with the legacy of extermination of its non-Serb population. For this reason, I ask you to refrain from from this morally objectionable project and in doing so demonstrate the due respects to genocide victims at Straziste cemetery.
Image: Superintendent of La Fenice Theatre Cristiano Chiarot, Emir Kusturica and Milorad Dodik.
On 26 March 2013, the director of the La Fenice – Verdiana Theatre of Venice, Christian Chiarotto, signed a letter of intent for co-producing “The Bridge on the Drina River” opera in cooperation with Emir Kusturica. The opera is due to be played on 28 June 2014 in the newly built Andricgrad in Visegrad. 28 June marks St. Vitus Day in Serb Orthodox tradition marking the anniversary of the Kosovo battle in 1389.
This act by the La Fenice Theatre is problematic for several reasons:
- Cooperating with Emir Kusturica and Andricgrad under the blessing of RS President Milorad Dodik. Both figures are genocide deniers and have a record of criminal records.
- Andricgrad was built by Emir Kusturica and Republika Srpska partially on Bosniak land without the knowledge and approval of its rightful owners.
- The Visegrad Municipality has been terrorizing Bosniak returnees and denying Visegrad Bosniaks the right to build memorials for theirs victims. The latest case has been the Visegrad Municipality order to remove the genocide memorial at Straziste cemetery commemorating the victims of 1941-45 and 1992-95.
- Serb authorities in Visegrad have still not released the locations of mass graves where the estimated 600 missing Bosniaks from Visegrad are believed to be buried.
- All the mosques and other Islamic heritage in Visegrad were destroyed by Serb authorities. This heritage has been partially reconstructed by the Islamic Community without any help from the Serb authorities in Visegrad.
- Italian troops in World War Two have left a negative image of Italy and Italians among the Bosniak population due to their cooperation with the Serb fascist Chetnik forces. The Italian troops acted identically as to the Dutch UN in Srebrenica – in October 1943, the Italian troops surrendered the Visegrad enclave to the Chetniks and watched passively as thousands were massacred and the rest tried to flee over Mt. Sjemec towards Sarajevo.
Working with Kusturica and Dodik will bring more damage to La Fenice Theatre and Italy and any good. Instead it would be a good idea if representatives of the La Fenice Theatre along with the Visegrad Municipality representatives would visit Straziste cemetery and pay respect to the genocide victims buried there.
Mr. Valentin Inzko
The Office of the High Representative
Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Dear High Representative Inzko,
We are writing to express our grave concern about the decision taken by the Republika Srpska Ministry of Physical Planning, Civil Engineering and Ecology, for the Višegrad municipality to carry out the destruction of a memorial erected in the Stražište cemetery, the central Muslim cemetery in Višegrad. The memorial was erected on May 25, 2012. On the same day, sixty Bosniak victims of the genocidal aggression were laid to rest in the cemetery, having been exhumed from the nearby river Drina and from Lake Perućac barely two years earlier in the late summer and early autumn of 2010. Many of the victims had been murdered on the Mehmed Paša Sokolović Bridge and thrown into the river in 1992. When repairs on the nearby dam caused the river level to drop, the Bosnian Missing Persons Institute was able to locate the victims’ remains in the riverbed and Lake Perućac.
The Ministry’s and the Municipality’s plan to destroy the memorial is consistent with the genocide denial that is endemic to the political culture of Republika Srpska. In addition, the removal of the memorial is discriminatory, as well as a form of persecution that is a crime against humanity. Such a wanton act of desecration would only serve to confirm that the entity of Republika Srpska has become an apartheid entity.
There have been reports that if the word “Genocide” was to be removed from the memorial, the Višegrad authorities would allow it to remain in the cemetery. In fact, such genocide denial is rampant in Republika Srpska from the office of the Presidency to the Municipalities. President Milorad Dodik has repeatedly claimed that he will never accept that genocide took place in Srebrenica. In Prijedor, for example, the Mayor has attempted to prevent commemorations of the concentration camps and of the genocide.
Further, the demolition of the memorial in Stražište is patently discriminatory. The memorial is on land owned by and under the care of the Islamic community. Yet, while the Stražište memorial is to be removed, a prominent memorial to the perpetrators of the genocide has been permanently erected in the middle of Višegrad, and has been the site of ultranationalist rallies celebrating the perpetrators of the genocide. So it seems Bosnian Serbs are permitted to erect statues to the perpetrators, but according to the recent decision, Bosniaks would not be permitted to retain a simple memorial in their own cemetery in a rural location.
The threat of the violent destruction of the memorial is clearly directed at those Bosniaks who would think of burying their loved ones in Stražište cemetery, and against all Bosniaks and other non-Serbs who would think of returning to their former homes in Republika Srpska. Indeed, the plan to destroy the memorial seems to be part of a coordinated effort to discourage Bosniaks and other non-Serbs from returning to Republika Srpska. For example, on storefront windows in Višegrad (near the park for Ivo Andrić), one has been able to see large posters celebrating Vojislav Šešelj and proclaiming “Free Šešelj!” In one poster, Šešelj’s face appears alongside “White Eagles,” and on another poster his face is imposed on a representation of “greater Serbia.” Since Šešelj is associated with atrocities that were committed in Višegrad, the public display and celebration of his image is psychologically difficult, if not traumatic, for the survivors who seek to return.
We must not forget that what the ICTY called the “worst acts of inhumanity that a person may inflict upon others” occurred in Višegrad, where on two separate occasions up to 70 women and children were forced into houses that were then set ablaze. The victims perished in the flames. The court continued:
In the all too long, sad and wretched history of man’s inhumanity to man, the Pionirska street and Bikavac fires must rank high. At the close of the twentieth century, a century marked by war and bloodshed on a colossal scale, these horrific events stand out for the viciousness of the incendiary attack, for the obvious premeditation and calculation that defined it, for the sheer callousness and brutality of herding, trapping and locking the victims in the two houses, thereby rendering them helpless in the ensuing inferno, and for the degree of pain and suffering inflicted on the victims as they were burnt alive. There is a unique cruelty in expunging all traces of the individual victims which must heighten the gravity ascribed to these crimes. (From the ICTY Judgment Summary for Milan Lukić and Sredoje Lukić, 20 July 2009)
Bosniaks and other non-Serbs would then associate the monuments celebrating the perpetrators of the genocide, and the posters celebrating Šešelj, with the atrocities mentioned above. One is also reminded of the recent campaign slogan of President Dodik’s party (SNSD): “Српска кућа до куће” (“Srpska, kuća do kuće”). The implication is that with a “Serb from house to house” there is no room for the non-Serbs who were forcibly expelled.
Such a coordinated and multi-layered campaign of intimidation, as identified above, can be interpreted as a human rights violation and as persecution. We are using the term “persecution” here as it is defined under Article 7 of the Rome Statute as a “widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population, including “inhumane acts … intentionally causing great suffering, or serious injury to body or to mental or physical health.”
The threat to destroy the memorial, and the range of posters and statues celebrating war criminals, along with genocide denial from the highest levels of the political administration of “Republika Srpska,” can be seen as a systematic attack directed at the Bosniak and other non-Serb populations, an attack designed to instill fear and insecurity that would cause “suffering” and “injury …to mental health.” Said persecution would seem to be designed to prevent Bosniaks from exercising their rights, under the Dayton Peace Accords, and under international law, to return to their former homes in Republika Srpska “…without risk of harassment, intimidation, persecution, or discrimination, particularly on account of their ethnic origin…”
I would suggest, then, that insofar as the psychological harm resulting from the threat to destroy the memorial and from the iconography of ultra-nationalism and separatism prevents Bosniaks and other non-Serbs from exercising their right to return to their former homes, it would constitute a violation of Annex 7, Article I of the Dayton Peace Accords and of the fundamental human right to move freely within the borders of a state.
Therefore, insofar as it is the responsibility of the international community to protect Bosniaks from psychological harm and from the deprivation of their fundamental rights, we should recognize the extent to which the plan to remove the memorial in Stražište cemetery can be identified as persecution. Such an act of intimidation and genocide denial should not be allowed in a democratic society with respect for human rights and operating under the rule of law.
Specifically, the international community has the responsibility to protect Bosniaks whose loved ones are buried in the Stražište cemetery, as well as those who would seek to return to their former homes in the municipality of Višegrad. In the current case, there is a responsibility to protect the memorial dedicated to the victims of the genocide. To allow the demolition or removal of the memorial would be to endorse genocide denial, discrimination and persecution.
We urgently implore you to intervene, under the doctrine of the responsibility to protect, in order to prevent the destruction or removal of the memorial to the victims of the genocide in Višegrad.
Thank you for your consideration.
David Pettigrew, PhD
Professor of Philosophy,
Southern CT State University
Steering Committee Member, Yale Genocide Studies Program
International Team of Experts, Institute for Research of Genocide Canada
Prof. Emir Ramic, Chairman, Institute for the Research of Genocide, Canada (IRGC) ,
Haris Alibasic, MPA, President, Congress of North American Bosniaks (CNAB), Washington, DC,
Sanja Seferovic-Drnovsek, J.D., M.Ed., Chair , Bosnian American Genocide Institute and Education Center (BAGI) , Chicago, IL, USA,
Jasmina Burdzovic Andreas, Assistant Professor (Research), Epidemiology Dept., Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA,
Dr. Hariz Halilović, Senior Lecturer in Socio-Cultural Anthropology, Office of the Pro-Vice-Chancellor, Monash University, Victoria, Australia,
Peter Lippman, Balkan Specialist and Human Rights Activist, Seattle, Washington, USA,
Patrick McCarthy, Associate Professor and Director of Medical Center Library, Saint Louis University, USA,
Prof. Natalie Nenadic, Ph.D., Department of Philosophy, University of Kentucky, USA,
Initiated the Kadic v. Karadzic lawsuit (New York, 1993-2000), which pioneered the claim for sexual atrocities as acts of genocide under international law.
New Haven, 3 March 2013
Florence Hartmann, writer and journalist (former Le Monde correspondent during the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and former ICTY prosecutor’s spokesperson), Paris, France,
Dr. Marko Attila Hoare, Reader at the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, Kingston University, London, UK,
Dr. John H. Weiss, Associate Professor of History, Cornell University; Chair, Bosnia Coordinating Committee of Ithaca, NY, USA
On 21.02.2013., the Visegrad Municipality brought a decision to demolish the memorial for genocide victims in Straziste cemetery. This decision was brought in accordance with the decision of the Republika Srpska Ministry of Spatial Planning, Civil Enginnering and Ecology on 13.02.2013. brought a decision in which it turned down an appeal by the Islamic Community of Visegrad to the 2012 Visegrad Municipality decision to demolish the first monument for victims of
Visegrad genocide 1941-45 and 1992-95 located in Straziste cemetery in Visegrad.
The Straziste cemetery is vakuf land – property of the Islamic Community. According to BH State law, religious communities have autonomy over their property. Tearing down this monument is direct interference in the autonomy of the Islamic Community.
Image: The Synagogue in Visegrad, converted after WWII into the Fire-station.
The first Jews arrived in Visegrad at the beginning of the XIX century. According to “Bosnian Glasnik”, in 1908 there were 177 Jews living in Visegrad while in 1940 that number was around 110. Many after finishing their education moved to other towns like Sarajevo, Belgrade or Zagreb in search for jobs.
During the First World War, Visegrad was the center of many battles between Austro-Hungaria and Serbia. Most of the population had to seek refuge in Central Bosnia.
In 1905 the Jewish community built a new synagogue in Visegrad because the old one was decrepit. During World War Two, when the Germans entered the town, the synagogue was ransacked and turned into a storage area and later a stable for horses.
The Germans did not stay long in the town and it was handed over to the Italians.
The Ustashas were not able to deport the Visegrad Jews since the Yugoslav Partizans disabled the railway tracks.
A large number of Visegrad Jews escaped from Visegrad towards Sandzak (Serbia) and Monte Negro while many joined the Partizans.
In October 1943, after the capitulation of Italy, Visegrad was overran by Serb Chetnik forces and the Bosniak population was massacred and forced to seek refuge in central Bosnia.
The town was retaken from the Chetniks by German forces in 1944 and the Gestapo arrested and deported the remaining Jews to Bergen-Belzen concentration camp. Altogether 46 Visegrad Jews were murdered in German concentration camps. 56 Visegrad Jews survived the war. These were survivors from the camps and Partizans. Most of them settled in Belgrade, Sarajevo, Zagreb as officers, officials and highly-qualified workers. Only the Romano family remained to live in Visegrad – the famous Avram Romano Mamic.
Source: Pinto, Avram. Jevreji Sarajeva i Bosne i Hercegovine, Veselin Maslesa, Sarajevo, 1987.
The WordPress.com stats helper monkeys prepared a 2012 annual report for this blog.
Here’s an excerpt:
19,000 people fit into the new Barclays Center to see Jay-Z perform. This blog was viewed about 130,000 times in 2012. If it were a concert at the Barclays Center, it would take about 7 sold-out performances for that many people to see it.
Below are several photos of the identification process of Visegrad genocide victims who were found in Lake Perucac. These victims were identified in May, 2012. Photo credits: Almir Panjeta/klix.ba
The remains of Alma Hasecic, Visegrad genocide victim
Alma Hasecic’s father identifying the remains of his daughter.
Alma Hasecic’s father Remzija prays for the soul of his daughter Alma who was murdered during the Visegrad genocide
Forensic expert Hamza Zujo explains to Alma Hasecic’s family the cause of death
The remains of Alma Hasecic
A Visegrad family mourns at the identification of a loved one
The identification room in the morgue in Visoko, Bosnia and Herzegovina